23 4 月, 2024

Dissecting The Analects: an NLP-based exploration of semantic similarities and differences across English translations Humanities and Social Sciences Communications

semantic analysis in natural language processing

You can foun additiona information about ai customer service and artificial intelligence and NLP. Many NLP systems meet or are close to human agreement on a variety of complex semantic tasks. The clinical NLP community is actively benchmarking new approaches and applications using these shared corpora. For some real-world clinical use cases on higher-level tasks such as medical diagnosing and medication error detection, deep semantic analysis is not always necessary – instead, statistical language models based on word frequency information have proven successful. There still remains a gap between the development of complex NLP resources and the utility of these tools and applications in clinical settings. As most of the world is online, the task of making data accessible and available to all is a challenge.

  • Capturing the information is the easy part but understanding what is being said (and doing this at scale) is a whole different story.
  • You can proactively get ahead of NLP problems by improving machine language understanding.
  • And if we want to know the relationship of or between sentences, we train a neural network to make those decisions for us.
  • However, many organizations struggle to capitalize on it because of their inability to analyze unstructured data.

Within the similarity score intervals of 80–85% and 85–90%, the distributions of sentences across all five translators is more balanced, each accounting for about 20%. However, translations by Jennings present fewer instances in the highly similar intervals of 95–100% (1%) and 90–95% (14%). Contrastingly, Slingerland’s translation features a higher percentage of sentences with similarity scores within the 95–100% interval (30%) and the 90–95% interval (24%) compared to the other translators. Watson’s translation also records a substantially higher percentage (34%) within the 95–100% range compared to other translators.

Ontology and Knowledge Graphs for Semantic Analysis in Natural Language Processing

For example, if mentions of Huntington’s disease are spuriously redacted from a corpus to understand treatment efficacy in Huntington’s patients, knowledge may not be gained because disease/treatment concepts and their causal relationships are not extracted accurately. One de-identification application that integrates both machine learning (Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Conditional Random Fields (CRF)) and lexical pattern matching (lexical variant generation and regular expressions) is BoB (Best-of-Breed) [25-26]. Pre-annotation, providing machine-generated annotations based on e.g. dictionary lookup from knowledge bases such as the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus [11], can assist the manual efforts required from annotators. A study by Lingren et al. [12] combined dictionaries with regular expressions to pre-annotate clinical named entities from clinical texts and trial announcements for annotator review. They observed improved reference standard quality, and time saving, ranging from 14% to 21% per entity while maintaining high annotator agreement (93-95%). In another machine-assisted annotation study, a machine learning system, RapTAT, provided interactive pre-annotations for quality of heart failure treatment [13].

Similarly, words like “said,” “master,” “never,” and “words” appear consistently across all five translations. However, despite their recurrent appearance, these words are considered to have minimal practical significance within the scope of our analysis. This is primarily due to their ubiquity and the negligible unique semantic contribution they make. For these reasons, this study excludes these two types of words-stop words and high-frequency yet semantically non-contributing words from our word frequency statistics. 1 represents the computed semantic similarity between any two aligned sentences from the translations, averaged over three algorithms. During our study, this study observed that certain sentences from the original text of The Analects were absent in some English translations.

Therefore, in semantic analysis with machine learning, computers use Word Sense Disambiguation to determine which meaning is correct in the given context. This degree of language understanding can help companies automate even the most complex language-intensive processes and, in doing so, transform the way they do business. So the question is, why settle for an educated guess when you can rely on actual knowledge? Consider the task of text summarization which is used to create digestible chunks of information from large quantities of text.

semantic analysis in natural language processing

By doing so, readers can greatly improve their cognitive abilities during the reading process. Furthermore, this study advises translators to provide comprehensive paratextual interpretations of core conceptual terms and personal names to more accurately mirror the context of the original text. This study employs sentence alignment to construct a parallel corpus based on five English translations of The Analects. Subsequently, this study applied Word2Vec, GloVe, and BERT to quantify the semantic similarities among these translations. The similarities and dissimilarities among these five translations were evaluated based on the resulting similarity scores. The Jennings’ translation considered the readability of the text and restructured the original text, which was a very reader-friendly innovation at the time.

The National Library of Medicine is developing The Specialist System [78,79,80, 82, 84]. It is expected to function as an Information Extraction tool for Biomedical Knowledge Bases, particularly Medline abstracts. The lexicon was created using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary and general English Dictionaries.

Since the thorough review of state-of-the-art in automated de-identification methods from 2010 by Meystre et al. [21], research in this area has continued to be very active. The United States Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) [22] definition for PHI is often adopted for de-identification – also for non-English clinical data. For instance, in Korea, recent law enactments have been implemented to prevent the unauthorized use of medical information – but without specifying what constitutes PHI, in which case the HIPAA definitions have been proven useful [23]. In this paper, we review the state of the art of clinical NLP to support semantic analysis for the genre of clinical texts. We present a review of recent advances in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP), with a focus on semantic analysis and key subtasks that support such analysis.

Approaches to Meaning Representations

Compiling this data can help marketing teams understand what consumers care about and how they perceive a business’ brand. If you’re interested in using some of these techniques with Python, take a look at the Jupyter Notebook about Python’s natural language toolkit (NLTK) that I created. You can also check out my blog post about building neural networks with Keras where I train a neural network to perform sentiment analysis. Relationship extraction takes the named entities of NER and tries to identify the semantic relationships between them. This could mean, for example, finding out who is married to whom, that a person works for a specific company and so on.

The third objective of this paper is on datasets, approaches, evaluation metrics and involved challenges in NLP. Section 2 deals with the first objective mentioning the various important terminologies of NLP and NLG. Section 3 deals with the history of NLP, applications of NLP and a walkthrough of the recent developments.

semantic analysis in natural language processing

Chinese discharge summaries contained a slightly larger discussion of problems, but fewer treatment entities than the American notes. Two of the most important first steps to enable semantic analysis of a clinical use case are the creation of a corpus of relevant clinical texts, and the annotation of that corpus with the semantic information of interest. Identifying the appropriate corpus and defining a representative, expressive, unambiguous semantic representation (schema) is critical for addressing each clinical use case. Several companies in BI spaces are trying to get with the trend and trying hard to ensure that data becomes more friendly and easily accessible.

Textual Question Answering for Semantic Parsing in Natural Language Processing

Parsing refers to the formal analysis of a sentence by a computer into its constituents, which results in a parse tree showing their syntactic relation to one another in visual form, which can be used for further processing and understanding. Syntax is the grammatical structure of the text, whereas semantics is the meaning being conveyed. A sentence that is syntactically correct, however, is not always semantically correct.

This facilitates a quantitative discourse on the similarities and disparities present among the translations. Through detailed analysis, this study determined that factors such as core conceptual words, and personal names in the translated text significantly impact semantic representation. This research aims to enrich readers’ holistic understanding of The Analects by providing valuable insights. Additionally, this research offers pragmatic recommendations and strategies to future translators embarking on this seminal work.

A sentence has a main logical concept conveyed which we can name as the predicate. The arguments for the predicate can be identified from other parts of the sentence. Some methods use the grammatical classes whereas others use unique methods to name these arguments. The identification of the predicate and the arguments for that predicate is known as semantic role labeling.

Analyze Sentiment in Real-Time with AI

When combined with machine learning, semantic analysis allows you to delve into your customer data by enabling machines to extract meaning from unstructured text at scale and in real time. In semantic analysis with machine learning, computers use word sense disambiguation to determine which meaning is correct in the given context. Apparently the chunk ‘the bank’ has a different meaning in the above two sentences. Focusing only on the word, without considering the context, would lead to an inappropriate inference. In fact, the data available in the real world in textual format are quite noisy and contain several issues.

semantic analysis in natural language processing

There are real world categories for these entities, such as ‘Person’, ‘City’, ‘Organization’ and so on. Sometimes the same word may appear in document to represent both the entities. Named entity recognition can be used in text classification, topic modelling, content recommendations, trend detection. It is the first part of the semantic analysis in which the study of the meaning of individual words is performed. MonkeyLearn makes it simple for you to get started with automated semantic analysis tools. Using a low-code UI, you can create models to automatically analyze your text for semantics and perform techniques like sentiment and topic analysis, or keyword extraction, in just a few simple steps.

In other words, we can say that polysemy has the same spelling but different and related meanings. Usually, relationships involve two or more entities such as names of people, places, company names, etc. Hence, under Compositional Semantics Analysis, we try to understand how combinations of individual words form the meaning of the text. Every type of communication — be it a tweet, LinkedIn post, or review in the comments section of a website — may contain potentially relevant and even valuable information that companies must capture and understand to stay ahead of their competition. Capturing the information is the easy part but understanding what is being said (and doing this at scale) is a whole different story. In the example shown in the below image, you can see that different words or phrases are used to refer the same entity.

This approach minimized manual workload with significant improvements in inter-annotator agreement and F1 (89% F1 for assisted annotation compared to 85%). In contrast, a study by South et al. [14] applied cue-based dictionaries coupled with predictions from a de-identification system, BoB (Best-of-Breed), to pre-annotate protected health information (PHI) from synthetic clinical texts for annotator review. They found that annotators produce higher recall in less time when annotating without pre-annotation (from 66-92%). Clinical NLP is the application of text processing approaches on documents written by healthcare professionals in clinical settings, such as notes and reports in health records. Clinical NLP can provide clinicians with critical patient case details, which are often locked within unstructured clinical texts and dispersed throughout a patient’s health record.

Chunking known as “Shadow Parsing” labels parts of sentences with syntactic correlated keywords like Noun Phrase (NP) and Verb Phrase (VP). Various researchers (Sha and Pereira, 2003; McDonald et al., 2005; Sun et al., 2008) [83, 122, 130] used CoNLL test data for chunking and used features composed of words, POS tags, and tags. This path of natural language processing focuses on identification of named entities such as persons, locations, organisations which are denoted by proper nouns. Insurance companies can assess claims with natural language processing since this technology can handle both structured and unstructured data.

This study has covered various aspects including the Natural Language Processing (NLP), Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA), and Sentiment Analysis (SA) in different sections of this study. However, LSA has been covered in detail with specific inputs from various sources. This study also highlights the future prospects of semantic analysis domain and finally the study is concluded with the result section where areas of improvement are highlighted and the recommendations are made for the future research. This study also highlights the weakness and the limitations of the study in the discussion (Sect. 4) and results (Sect. 5). The Analects, a classic Chinese masterpiece compiled during China’s Warring States Period, encapsulates the teachings and actions of Confucius and his disciples.

CapitalOne claims that Eno is First natural language SMS chatbot from a U.S. bank that allows customers to ask questions using natural language. Customers can interact with Eno asking questions about their savings and others using a text interface. This provides a different platform than other brands that launch chatbots like Facebook Messenger and Skype. They believed that Facebook has too much access to private information of a person, which could get them into trouble with privacy laws U.S. financial institutions work under. Like Facebook Page admin can access full transcripts of the bot’s conversations.

For each sentence number on the x-axis, a corresponding semantic similarity value is generated by each algorithm. The y-axis represents the semantic similarity results, ranging from 0 to 100%. A higher value on the y-axis indicates a higher degree of semantic similarity between sentence pairs.

In this component, we combined the individual words to provide meaning in sentences. Thus, the ability of a machine to overcome the ambiguity involved in identifying the meaning of a word based on its usage and context is called Word Sense Disambiguation. In Natural Language, the meaning of a word may vary as per its usage in sentences and the context of the text. Word Sense Disambiguation involves interpreting the meaning of a word based upon the context of its occurrence in a text. Understanding these terms is crucial to NLP programs that seek to draw insight from textual information, extract information and provide data.

However, clinical texts can be laden with medical jargon and can be composed with telegraphic constructions. Furthermore, sublanguages can exist within each of the various clinical sub-domains and note types [1-3]. Therefore, when applying computational semantics, automatic processing of semantic meaning from texts, domain-specific methods and linguistic features for accurate parsing and information extraction should be considered. Pragmatic level focuses on the knowledge or content that comes from the outside the content of the document. Real-world knowledge is used to understand what is being talked about in the text. When a sentence is not specific and the context does not provide any specific information about that sentence, Pragmatic ambiguity arises (Walton, 1996) [143].

semantic analysis in natural language processing

Another remarkable thing about human language is that it is all about symbols. According to Chris Manning, a machine learning professor at Stanford, it is a discrete, symbolic, categorical signaling system. This means we can convey the same meaning in different ways (i.e., speech, gesture, signs, etc.) The encoding by the human brain is a continuous pattern of activation by which the symbols are transmitted via continuous signals of sound and vision.

How does NLP impact CX automation?

Generative methods can generate synthetic data because of which they create rich models of probability distributions. Discriminative methods are more functional and have right estimating posterior probabilities and are based on observations. Srihari [129] explains the different generative models as one with a resemblance that is used to spot an unknown speaker’s language and would bid the deep knowledge of numerous languages to perform the match. Discriminative methods rely on a less knowledge-intensive approach and using distinction between languages. Whereas generative models can become troublesome when many features are used and discriminative models allow use of more features [38].

Ahonen et al. (1998) [1] suggested a mainstream framework for text mining that uses pragmatic and discourse level analyses of text. We first give insights on some of the mentioned tools and relevant work done before moving to the broad applications of NLP. NLP can be classified into two parts i.e., Natural Language Understanding and Natural Language Generation which evolves the task to understand and generate the text. The objective of this section is to discuss the Natural Language Understanding (Linguistic) (NLU) and the Natural Language Generation (NLG). To know the meaning of Orange in a sentence, we need to know the words around it. This technique is used separately or can be used along with one of the above methods to gain more valuable insights.

While semantic analysis is more modern and sophisticated, it is also expensive to implement. That leads us to the need for something better and more sophisticated, i.e., Semantic Analysis. We can any of the below two semantic analysis techniques depending on the type of information you would like to obtain from the given data.

Lexical analysis is based on smaller tokens but on the contrary, the semantic analysis focuses on larger chunks. Therefore, the goal of semantic analysis is to draw exact meaning or dictionary meaning from the text. In the ever-expanding era of textual information, it is important for organizations to draw insights from such data to fuel businesses. Semantic Analysis helps machines interpret the meaning of texts and extract useful information, thus providing invaluable data while reducing manual efforts. You can find out what a group of clustered words mean by doing principal component analysis (PCA) or dimensionality reduction with T-SNE, but this can sometimes be misleading because they oversimplify and leave a lot of information on the side.

One approach called ClinAdapt uses a transformation-based learner to change tag errors along with a lexicon generator, increasing performance by 6-11% on clinical texts [37]. Scalability of de-identification for larger corpora is also a critical challenge to address as the scientific community shifts its focus toward “big data”. Deleger et al. [32] showed that automated de-identification models perform at least as well as human annotators, and also scales well on millions of texts.

semantic analysis in natural language processing

The underlying NLP methods were mostly based on term mapping, but also included negation handling and context to filter out incorrect matches. Several systems and studies have also attempted to improve PHI identification while addressing processing challenges such as utility, generalizability, scalability, and inference. Minimizing the manual effort required and time spent to generate annotations would be a considerable contribution to the development of semantic resources. Once a corpus is selected and a schema is defined, it is assessed for reliability and validity [9], traditionally through an annotation study in which annotators, e.g., domain experts and linguists, apply or annotate the schema on a corpus. Ensuring reliability and validity is often done by having (at least) two annotators independently annotating a schema, discrepancies being resolved through adjudication.

Considering these metrics in mind, it helps to evaluate the performance of an NLP model for a particular task or a variety of tasks. Content is today analyzed by search engines, semantically and ranked accordingly. It is thus important to load the content with sufficient context and expertise. On the whole, such a trend has improved the general content quality of the internet. semantic analysis in natural language processing For Example, Tagging Twitter mentions by sentiment to get a sense of how customers feel about your product and can identify unhappy customers in real-time. Both polysemy and homonymy words have the same syntax or spelling but the main difference between them is that in polysemy, the meanings of the words are related but in homonymy, the meanings of the words are not related.

Extracting meaning or achieving understanding from human language through statistical or computational processing is one of the most fundamental and challenging problems of artificial intelligence. From a practical point of view, the dramatic increase in availability of text in electronic form means that reliable automated analysis of natural language is an extremely useful source of data for many disciplines. There are particular words in the document that refer to specific entities or real-world objects like location, people, organizations etc. To find the words which have a unique context and are more informative, noun phrases are considered in the text documents.

In an investigation carried out by the National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) in Sweden, 4,200 patient records and their ICD-10 coding were reviewed, and they found a 20 percent error rate in the assignment of main diagnoses [90]. NLP approaches have been developed to support this task, also called automatic coding, see Stanfill et al. [91], for a thorough overview. Perotte et al. [92], elaborate on different metrics used to evaluate automatic coding systems.

  • The underlying NLP methods were mostly based on term mapping, but also included negation handling and context to filter out incorrect matches.
  • Another approach deals with the problem of unbalanced data and defines a number of linguistically and semantically motivated constraints, along with techniques to filter co-reference pairs, resulting in an unweighted average F1 of 89% [59].
  • For readers, the core concepts in The Analects transcend the meaning of single words or phrases; they encapsulate profound cultural connotations that demand thorough and precise explanations.
  • Using LSA, a low-rank approximation of the original matrix can be created (with some loss of information although!) that can be used for our clustering purpose.

This makes the analysis of texts much more complicated than analyzing the structured tabular data. This tutorial will try to focus on one of the many methods available to tame textual data. While some translators faithfully mirror the original text, capturing the unique aspects of ancient Chinese naming conventions, this approach may necessitate additional context or footnotes for readers unfamiliar with these conventions.

In this paper, we first distinguish four phases by discussing different levels of NLP and components of Natural Language Generation followed by presenting the history and evolution of NLP. We then discuss in detail the state of the art presenting the various applications of NLP, current trends, and challenges. Finally, we present a discussion on some available datasets, models, and evaluation metrics in NLP. Each year’s workshop features a collection of shared tasks in which computational semantic analysis systems designed by different teams are presented and compared.

The letters directly above the single words show the parts of speech for each word (noun, verb and determiner). For example, “the thief” is a noun phrase, “robbed the apartment” is a verb phrase and when put together the two phrases form a sentence, which is marked one level higher. Meaning representation can be used to reason for verifying what is true in the world as well as to infer the knowledge from the semantic representation. The very first reason is that with the help of meaning representation the linking of linguistic elements to the non-linguistic elements can be done.

The Role of Natural Language Processing in AI: The Power of NLP – DataDrivenInvestor

The Role of Natural Language Processing in AI: The Power of NLP.

Posted: Fri, 13 Oct 2023 07:00:00 GMT [source]

Evaluating translated texts and analyzing their characteristics can be achieved through measuring their semantic similarities, using Word2Vec, GloVe, and BERT algorithms. This study conduct triangulation method among three algorithms to ensure the robustness and reliability of the results. Most studies on temporal relation classification focus on relations within one document. Cross-narrative temporal event ordering was addressed in a recent study with promising results by employing a finite state transducer approach [73]. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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